Steel studs

Steel studs are metal elements commonly used in building industry since the 1960s. The field of application of these popular steel studs, standardised in acc. with EN ISO 13918, includes mainly bridge composite constructions (Fig. 1, Fig. 3), multistoried car parks, commercial and service halls (Fig. 3) and other large-area objects, as well as high-rise edifices (residential or office tower blocks) where the aforementioned studs do the duty as connectors between steel girders and concrete slabs placed on them (Fig. 5). The metallic connections of the entire cross-sections of studs with the support elements of steel structures, most often performed by the drawn arc stud welding (DASW – method 783 in acc. with EN ISO 4063), reinforce the stiffness of such structural products which have to carry tensile loads, and simultaneously the anchorage of studs in the chambers of the concrete mass responsible for the opposition to compressive forces contributes to the increase in the fire resistance of the whole girders (Fig. 2). As for the available dimensions of the studs and their manufacturing requirements they are defined by the international technical standards, e.g. Eurocode 4.

Fot. 1

Fig. 1

The top of the composite bridge support structure – girders with the studs welded to their external surfaces. [1]

Rys. 2

Fig. 2

The exemplary diagram of the load forces in the steel structure girder with the studs and the concrete mortar layer placed on its external surface.

Fot. 2

Fig. 3

The composite bridge support structure during the assembly works (foundation on the pillars). One can see the consecutive rows of girders, made of I-shaped sections, with the studs welded to their external surfaces. [1]

Fot. 3

Fig. 4

The steel support structure of Mercedes car dealership service center in Berlin during the assembly works. Placed between the supporting pillars there are numerous crossheads with the studs welded to their shelves external surfaces. [2]

Fot. 4

Fig. 5

Prepared for filling with mortar it is the joint of the concrete ceiling panels in the multistoried car park. One can see the studs located between the reinforcing bars and welded to the external surface of the element of the steel building structure. [1]

Steel studs are also commonly applied in joining steel building construction elements with concrete mortar poured on consecutive stroreys. In such cases, the nest step after completion of the welding processes of studs to the steel beams surfaces and implementation of these elements to accurate positions in the whole construction is covering with concrete the particular girders on their sides where the studs were previously installed. Properly designed and manufactured building elements with welded studs immersed in the concrete mass, e.g. anchors, (Fig. 6) stand as the guarantee of safe transfer of loads reaching even the maximal value of unalloyed steel yield strength (Fig. 7). The procedures regarding the practical applications of studs in projects intended to be performed in the countries within the European Community are regulated by the provisions of the European Organization of Technical Assessment (EOTA). For instance, in Federal Republic of Germany documents ETA-03/0039 (ref. non-alloyed studs of Köster & Co. production) and ETA-03/0040 (ref. stainless steel dtuds of Köster & Co. production) are on the statute book.

Fot. 5

Fig. 6

The steel building structure of the Mercedes dealership service center in Berlin during the assembly works. One can see the numerous studs welded to the external surfaces of the shelves of the diagonals placed between the supporting pillars. [2]

Fot. 6

Fig. 7

The general depiction of the directions of forces and bending moments taking place in:

A - the steel anchor with studs immersed in concrete;
B - the steel girder joined with the aforementioned anchor;

[1] „Composite construction with Köco – stud welding technology”, Impressive Technology, 9/2010, ver. 1.31.
[2] Courtesy of M.Sc.Eng. Christoph Gutsche, Spannverbund GmbH.

Köco weldable studs

The enterprise BROSET Ltd. has been successfully cooperating with Köster & Co. GmbH for several years. This experienced German company and simultaneously one of the European leaders in manufacturing of weldable steel studs put its faith in us in the field of their selected goods distribution in Poland in the limited scale only. The range of Köco items offered by Broset consists of shear connectors (i.e. SD symbol) of diameters of 16÷25 mm and of lengths 50÷250 mm. These products can usually be applied instead of the studs of widely known Nelson company. The further details concerning these particular connectors can be found on their producer's website. However, the decision regarding the prospective approval of the substitutes of this type depends on the steel construction ordering party or the supervision associations monitoring the ongoing project.

The general terms of sale

Any sale can be accomplished only on the basis of the written acceptance of the commercial offer issued on the particular trade enquiry. The prices covered in the written offer regarding ex works (i.e. Loco) in our headquarters in Wałcz, Western Pomerania. Depending on the desired amount and the sizes of studs, prices vary ca. 0,30÷1,5 €/pcs. Note that the delivery to the designated address will increase the total cost, since it is necessary to take cognisance of the current price list of the chosen courier company. There is also the possibility of a free of charge personal reception. The payment is executed in cash during the personal reception or on-line payment in advance in PLN. The value is calculated on the basis of the average Euro currency rate reported by National Bank of Poland on the former day of the invoice issuing. Simultaneously the offer stays valid up to 28 days from the day of the written order confirmation. Usually the written offer remains valid for 14 days from the date of its preparation.

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